Authentication Still Sucks
I currently own 47 domain names. I know it sounds like a lot, but that’s down quite a bit from my all-time high of 78 ~two years ago.
I’m constantly thinking about fun websites and businesses to build; I can’t help it. For the last ten years or so, I’ve probably acquired around ten domains per year as a way to satisfy my never-ending need to build silly things.
My most shameless domain name purchase (as my wife will gladly tell you) was back in ~2010 when I purchased the subtly named “checkonoldpeople.com”. At the time, it was around 4am and I was hyped up on Rockstar (no-carb) energy drinks. I thought I had a revolutionary idea: a simple website that would call your aging parents for you automatically (using Twilio’s API) once per day, prompting them to press “1” if they were still alive. Tactful, I know.
I wish I could tell you I didn’t spend the next two days building out the service; but I won’t lie to you: I did.
Several years ago I was scrolling through a credit card statement and couldn’t help but gulp when I saw my yearly domain renewal bill. I think seeing the numbers there in that black-and-white PDF are what put really my insanity into perspective for me. After that experience I was finally able to let several dozen expire (including “checkonoldpeople.com”).
Most of the projects I start building are motivated by some small online void. Here’s how it happens:
- I’m working on a real-world project trying to figure something out
- I come across a solution and start implementing it
- Once I’m done implementing it, I wonder why it was so hard to figure it out in the first place
- This is where I immediately start thinking of project names, buy a domain name, and spend a minimum of one full night locked away hacking on the idea
It’s a vicious cycle.
The funny part of the whole thing is that 99% of these projects never see the light of day. 99% of them never have a single user (other than myself). You might think someone who is that driven and motivated would surely launch more than a few websites after so many years of building things: but you’d be incorrect.
For the most part, once I’ve found a reasonable working solution to my problem and built out the core functionality of the service, I struggle to finish the “other stuff” that makes projects and businesses successful:
- Allowing users to sign up for the service
- Building a polished website
- Handling billing (for paid services)
- Covering all odd edge-cases that a user might run into (404 pages, mobile design, etc.)
My typical workflow (as a backend developer) is to get the core functionality working, then refactor relentlessly until it meets my personal quality standards. After that’s done, I’ll start working on the customer facing website.
This is where I run into problems. Every. Single. Time.
After I throw together a basic bootstrap template, I choke when designing the user flows:
- User registration
- User login
- Password reset
- User permissions
You know: authentication and authorization.
It’s something that “sounds” so easy to do, but always ends up frustrating me in every possible way. I’m surprised more people in the software world don’t complain about it.
If something so fundamental and so critically important to almost every single website was as incredibly hard to implement and figure out as authentication, you can bet your ass there’d be half-a-million r/programming and Hacker News threads about it in a heartbeat.
If you woke up tomorrow and discovered that something as simple as implementing a contact page on your website took more than 40 hours to implement, you’d probably freak out.
“What is going on?! Why is this so hard? I thought this only took a minute. FUCK!”
That’s the way I’ve been feeling about authentication for the last 15 years or so. Over all the time I’ve spent programming, authentication and authorization are still as complex as ever. Maybe even moreso.
Back in the day, the only sort of authentication you really had to worry about as a developer was simple username/password authentication to a webpage. The idea was relatively simple:
- A user will send you their username/password
- You hash the user’s password (to keep it safe), and store it in a database
- When the user logs in, you compare their username/password with the username and hashed password in the database to log them in
While you still had to worry about things like database security, SSL, password hashing, etc. – the concept was at least easy to grasp and understand.
Nowadays things are significantly more complicated. For any given project you might need to authenticate:
- A user to a simple server-side web page
- A user to a client-side web page
- A user to a third party provider (like Facebook, Google, etc.)
- A program to an API
Each form of authentication requires different trade-offs, and potentially costly decisions.
Logging a user into a traditional server-side web page is mostly a solved problem. Web frameworks support secure user sessions, user serialization, and lots more. Depending on the programming language/web framework you’re using, however, you might be in for a lot of work. Not every language/framework is created equal.
If you’re a Node.js developer, for instance, you’ll likely find that trying to authenticate a user into even the most simple web application can become a painful experience in low-level security concepts.
Most Node applications use the passport library to handle authentication, and end up:
- Setting up and configuring their own session support
- Hashing their own user passwords
- Writing their own user serialization/deserialization logic
- And lots more
It seems insane to me that in 2017, if I want to build even a simple website that supports user registration and login, I’m still required to know and understand low level authentication concepts as well as implement these concepts in a secure and reliable way to protect the most critical data in my application: my users’ personal information.
And that may not sound like a lot of work at first: I’m certainly guilty of thinking that. There have been many occasions where I’ve said to myself:
“Oh, that doesn’t sound so hard! I know a decent amount about security! I’ll set up my session library, I’ll use the bcrypt hashing algorithm, I’ll write my user serialization code. I can get that working in a few hours!”
But what happens when you start implementing everything and realize:
- There are numerous options for session libraries, many of which support different configuration options, hashing algorithms, and encryption options – which one is the right choice?
- Your choice of hashing algorithm will need to be set to the correct “work factors” to prevent brute force attacks with current hardware constraints, and that in a year or two this algorithm will need to be upgraded transparently to prevent security issues?
- Your user model changes and breaks your serialization code, so you then need to modify it?
- You realize you need to implement password reset functionality, so you plug in an email API provider like Mailgun, create your templates, and write the logic to securely enabled password reset?
- You realize you need to support login via other mechanisms than just plain old username/password, so you start plugging in Facebook login, Google login, etc., each of which takes a reasonable amount of effort to get started and maintain over time?
- You realize you need to also authenticate users to your mobile app, and begin researching OAuth2 and OpenID Connect, looking for solutions that allow you to run a secure OAuth2 server, while at the same time making it easy to authenticate users to this new server?
- Etc… I could endlessly list all the authentication issues I’ve ran into.
And that doesn’t even begin to cover the massive surface area that authorization covers – namely, how do you assign user permissions, groups, and roles in an efficient and secure way? How do you segment user data into different “tenants” to keep customer information logically (or physically) isolated?
What I’m getting at is this: almost every time I sit down to build the authentication and authorization piece of my websites, mobile apps, and API services, I get overwhelmed.
Even when I’m building projects using a “complete” framework like Django that gets me 90% of the way, I still have a number of concerns to worry about:
- How do I expose my users to other services in my backend?
- How do I handle “user flows” like requiring a user to click an email link to verify their account? Or reset their password?
- How do I handle multi-factor authentication across a variety of channels? Yubikey? SMS? Google Authenticator? Etc.?
- How do I enable single sign-on for my users into other applications?
- How do I enable single sign-on for other application users into my application?
And the list goes on and on.
It doesn’t matter what programming language I use – the experience is more or less the same: I (as a developer) am expected to implement a ton of redundant logic that is mission-critical, deals with highly sensitive information, and can result in massive business losses if I screw it up.
I think that is unreasonable.
And that is why, almost four years ago now, I joined a tiny company called Stormpath.
At the time, I had just spent a year building and maintaining my own authentication API service internally for a company project, and had learned a ton about modern web security along the way. I really enjoyed working on it, and web security quickly became one of my favorite subjects.
When I ran into the Stormpath founders at a tech conference in SF, I initially thought they were a weather company – but what they told me was much more interesting than the weather: they were building the first developer focused authentication-as-a-service company.
I was floored.
I thought about my past experiences building this stuff myself, and how much I learned and struggled along the way. I thought about how much time and effort I’d put into authentication and authorization problems, and how much I underestimated them. After just a single conversation, I knew I had to get involved.
I reached out to the Stormpath team and told them why I’d be a good addition, and why I needed to join the crusade.
Before I knew it I was spending my days building open source security software. I was having a blast! As we continued to iterate on the Stormpath core API service, the developer libraries, and everything else that makes a developer service great (docs, tools, support, etc.), we started to see some real traction!
Developers enjoyed using our service. When they plugged our Flask library into their Flask web apps, it solved almost all of their authentication problems.
Things weren’t perfect, of course, but I was really proud of the tools we made, and was proud that our service allowed us to simplify authentication and authorization issues for so many developers around the world.
Now, for the sad part of the story.
Back in February of this year, Stormpath (the API service I had spent years of my life caring for and nurturing) was acquired. Everyone on the team was unsure of whether this was a good or bad thing.
When we joined forces with Okta, we were nervous. Okta acquired us to help build our initial Stormpath vision into a much larger and more scalable company, but most of us were afraid (at least I was).
I was afraid that we’d have to start over from scratch, and try to rebuild the great technology we already had. I was afraid that we’d ruin the goodwill we’d built with developers worldwide over the past few years, and burn our bridges. And more than anything: I was afraid that we’d lose the ability to build something truly magnificent: an authentication and authorization API service that is built FOR developers BY developers.
Since the acquisition, we’ve all gone through a lot.
We’ve made good decisions and bad. We’ve struggled to build and rebuild tools, libraries, documentation, and more. But through all the sleepless nights we’ve put in over the last six months, we’ve never compromised on one thing: the original vision.
This is why I’m genuinely excited to announce that today, we’re officially re-launching the new and improved Okta Identity Platform.
Everything has been molded to our vision, and we’re aiming to do something we could not before: build the world’s largest authentication-as-a-service platform for developers of all shapes and sizes.
The new Okta Identity Platform is our attempt to make authentication and authorization problems a relic of the past. We want to provide beautiful developer libraries across every programming language and framework to make adding things like…
- User registration
- User login
- Password reset
- Social login
- Single Sign-On
- API authentication
- And lots more
…a thoughtless five minute task.
Okta handles things like user credential storage, password hashing, data isolation, best practices, etc. If you use one of our new developer libraries, we’ll do our very best to solve all your user management problems.
While the Okta service isn’t perfect, and certainly has some rough edges, it’s something we’re all incredibly passionate about, and working hard every single day to improve. It will get better.
So today, it’s exciting to start fresh. I’m happy to have a second chance to build something that I love and care about.
For me, this is personal. I’m still working on fun side projects, and I’m still struggling through authentication problems. I won’t be satisfied until Okta fills the void that exists in the web world right now, and provides the absolute best platform for developers of all different types to scratch their user management itch.
This means we’re building the service to cater to actual developers of all types: students, hobbyists, 10pm - 4am hackers (like myself), startups, and even large enterprises. We’re aiming to build an extremely low-cost, usage-based service that anyone can use without the need to commit to expensive plans and upsells. We want to make something that WE would want to use in our next passion project.
For applications with fewer than 1,000 active monthly users, this means the service will be absolutely free. For applications with more active users than that, we’ve got inexpensive usage-based plans.
I think it’s time for authentication to no longer suck.
I’m happy to say that myself (and the rest of the former Stormpath team) will still be working on what we love most, and doing our absolute best to build something that we hope you will love as well.
Anyhow, thanks for hearing me out. If you’re interested in trying out the new Okta Identity Platform that I’ve been working on with the rest of the team, please sign up today and hit me up if you’ve got questions, comments, or feedback.
Finally, if you’d like to follow along with the Okta journey, we’re doing everything we can as transparently and publicly as possible. We’ve recently started writing on the Okta developer blog, and tweeting through our Okta Developer account. If you’re interested in seeing what it takes to launch a service like this, and how we’re improving things, you may find those interesting!
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